Meyers – Milias – Brown Act
3500. (a) It is the purpose of this chapter to promote full communication between public employers and their employees by providing a reasonable method of resolving disputes regarding wages, hours, and other terms and conditions of employment between public employers and public employee organizations. It is also the purpose of this chapter to promote the improvement of personnel management and employer-employee relations within the various public agencies in the State of California by providing a uniform basis for recognizing the right of public employees to join organizations of their own choice and be represented by those organizations in their employment relationships with public agencies. Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to supersede the provisions of existing state law and the charters, ordinances, and rules of local public agencies that establish and regulate a merit or civil service system or which provide for other methods of administering employer-employee relations nor is it intended that this chapter be binding upon those public agencies that provide procedures for the administration of employer-employee relations in accordance with the provisions of this chapter. This chapter is intended, instead, to strengthen merit, civil service and other methods of administering employer-employee relations through the establishment of uniform and orderly methods of communication between employees and the public agencies by which they are employed.
(b) The Legislature finds and declares that the duties and responsibilities of local agency employer representatives under this chapter are substantially similar to the duties and responsibilities required under existing collective bargaining enforcement procedures and therefore the costs incurred by the local agency employer representatives in performing those duties and responsibilities under this chapter are not reimbursable as state-mandated costs.
3500.5. This chapter shall be known and may be cited as the “Meyers-Milias-Brown Act.”
3501. As used in this chapter:
(a) “Employee organization” means either of the following:
(1) Any organization that includes employees of a public agency and that has as one of its primary purposes representing those employees in their relations with that public agency.
(2) Any organization that seeks to represent employees of a public agency in their relations with that public agency.
(b) “Recognized employee organization” means an employee organization which has been formally acknowledged by the public agency as an employee organization that represents employees of the public agency.
(c) Except as otherwise provided in this subdivision, “public agency” means every governmental subdivision, every district, every public and quasi-public corporation, every public agency and public service corporation and every town, city, county, city and county and municipal corporation, whether incorporated or not and whether chartered or not. As used in this chapter, “public agency” does not mean a school district or a county board of education or a county superintendent of schools or a personnel commission in a school district having a merit system as provided in Chapter 5 (commencing with Section 45100) of Part 25 and Chapter 4 (commencing with Section 88000) of Part 51 of the Education Code or the State of California.
(d) “Public employee” means any person employed by any public agency, including employees of the fire departments and fire services of counties, cities, cities and counties, districts, and other political subdivisions of the state, excepting those persons elected by popular vote or appointed to office by the Governor of this state.
(e) “Mediation” means effort by an impartial third party to assist in reconciling a dispute regarding wages, hours and other terms and conditions of employment between representatives of the public agency and the recognized employee organization or recognized employee organizations through interpretation, suggestion and advice.
(f) “Board” means the Public Employment Relations Board established pursuant to Section 3541.
3501.5. As used in this chapter, “public agency” does not mean a superior court.
3502. Except as otherwise provided by the Legislature, public employees shall have the right to form, join, and participate in the activities of employee organizations of their own choosing for the purpose of representation on all matters of employer-employee relations. Public employees also shall have the right to refuse to join or participate in the activities of employee organizations and shall have the right to represent themselves individually in their employment relations with the public agency.
3502.1. No public employee shall be subject to punitive action or denied promotion, or threatened with any such treatment, for the exercise of lawful action as an elected, appointed, or recognized representative of any employee bargaining unit.
3502.5. (a) Notwithstanding Section 3502, any other provision of this chapter, or any other law, rule, or regulation, an agency shop agreement may be negotiated between a public agency and a recognized public employee organization that has been recognized as the exclusive or majority bargaining agent pursuant to reasonable rules and regulations, ordinances, and enactments, in accordance with this chapter. As used in this chapter, “agency shop” means an arrangement that requires an employee, as a condition of continued employment, either to join the recognized employee organization or to pay the organization a service fee in an amount not to exceed the standard initiation fee, periodic dues, and general assessments of the organization.
(b) In addition to the procedure prescribed in subdivision (a), an agency shop arrangement between the public agency and a recognized employee organization that has been recognized as the exclusive or majority bargaining agent shall be placed in effect, without a negotiated agreement, upon (1) a signed petition of 30 percent of the employees in the applicable bargaining unit requesting an agency shop agreement and an election to implement an agency fee arrangement, and (2) the approval of a majority of employees who cast ballots and vote in a secret ballot election in favor of the agency shop agreement. The petition may be filed only after the recognized employee organization has requested the public agency to negotiate on
an agency shop arrangement and, beginning seven working days after the public agency received this request, the two parties have had 30 calendar days to attempt good faith negotiations in an effort to reach agreement. An election that may not be held more frequently than once a year shall be conducted by the California State Mediation and Conciliation Service in the event that the public agency and the recognized employee organization cannot agree within 10 days from the filing of the petition to select jointly a neutral person or entity to conduct the election. In the event of an agency fee arrangement outside of an agreement that is in effect, the recognized employee organization shall indemnify and hold the public agency harmless against any liability arising from a claim, demand, or other action relating to the public agency’s compliance with the agency fee obligation.
(c) An employee who is a member of a bona fide religion, body, or sect that has historically held conscientious objections to joining or financially supporting public employee organizations shall not be required to join or financially support a public employee organization as a condition of employment. The employee may be required, in lieu of periodic dues, initiation fees, or agency shop fees, to pay sums equal to the dues, initiation fees, or agency shop fees to a nonreligious, nonlabor charitable fund exempt from taxation under Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code, chosen by the employee from a list of at least three of these funds, designated in
a memorandum of understanding between the public agency and the public employee organization, or if the memorandum of understanding fails to designate the funds, then to a fund of that type chosen by the employee. Proof of the payments shall be made on a monthly basis to the public agency as a condition of continued exemption from the requirement of financial support to the public employee organization.
(d) An agency shop provision in a memorandum of understanding that is in effect may be rescinded by a majority vote of all the employees in the unit covered by the memorandum of understanding, provided that: (1) a request for that type of vote is supported by a petition containing the signatures of at least 30 percent of the employees in the unit, (2) the vote is by secret ballot, and (3) the vote may be taken at any time during the term of the memorandum of understanding, but in no event shall there be more than one vote taken during that term. Notwithstanding the above, the public agency and the recognized employee organization may negotiate, and by mutual agreement provide for, an alternative procedure or procedures regarding a vote on an agency shop agreement. The procedures in this subdivision are also applicable to an agency shop agreement placed in effect pursuant to subdivision (b).
(e) An agency shop arrangement shall not apply to management employees.
(f) A recognized employee organization that has agreed to an agency shop provision or is a party to an agency shop arrangement shall keep an adequate itemized record of its financial transactions and shall make available annually, to the public agency with which the agency shop provision was negotiated, and to the employees who are members of the organization, within 60 days after the end of its fiscal year, a detailed written financial report thereof in the form of a balance sheet and an operating statement, certified as to accuracy by its president and treasurer or corresponding principal officer, or by a certified public accountant. An employee organization required to file financial reports under the federal Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act of 1959 (29 U.S.C. Sec. 401 et seq.) covering employees governed by this chapter, or required to file financial reports under Section 3546.5, may satisfy the financial reporting requirement of this section by providing the public agency with a copy of the financial reports.
3503. Recognized employee organizations shall have the right to represent their members in their employment relations with public agencies. Employee organizations may establish reasonable restrictions regarding who may join and may make reasonable provisions for the dismissal of individuals from membership. Nothing in this section shall prohibit any employee from appearing in his own behalf in his employment relations with the public agency.
3504. The scope of representation shall include all matters relating to employment conditions and employer-employee relations, including, but not limited to, wages, hours, and other terms and conditions of employment, except, however, that the scope of representation shall not include consideration of the merits, necessity, or organization of any service or activity provided by law or executive order.
3504.5. (a) Except in cases of emergency as provided in this section, the governing body of a public agency, and boards and commissions designated by law or by the governing body of a public agency, shall give reasonable written notice to each recognized employee organization affected of any ordinance, rule, resolution, or regulation directly relating to matters within the scope of representation proposed to be adopted by the governing body or the designated boards and commissions and shall give the recognized employee organization the opportunity to meet with the governing body or the boards and commissions.
(b) In cases of emergency when the governing body or the designated boards and commissions determine that an ordinance, rule, resolution, or regulation must be adopted immediately without prior notice or meeting with a recognized employee organization, the governing body or the boards and commissions shall provide notice and opportunity to meet at the earliest practicable time following the adoption of the ordinance, rule, resolution, or regulation.
(c) The governing body of a public agency with a population in excess of 4,000,000, or the boards and commissions designated by the governing body of such a public agency shall not discriminate against employees by removing or disqualifying them from a health benefit plan, or otherwise restricting their ability to participate in a health benefit plan, on the basis that the employees have selected or supported a recognized employee organization. Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit the governing body of a public agency or the board or commission of a public agency and a recognized employee organization from agreeing to health benefit plan enrollment criteria or eligibility limitations.
3505. The governing body of a public agency, or such boards, commissions, administrative officers or other representatives as may be properly designated by law or by such governing body, shall meet and confer in good faith regarding wages, hours, and other terms and conditions of employment with representatives of such recognized employee organizations, as defined in subdivision (b) of Section 3501, and shall consider fully such presentations as are made by the employee organization on behalf of its members prior to arriving at a determination of policy or course of action.
“Meet and confer in good faith” means that a public agency, or such representatives as it may designate, and representatives of recognized employee organizations, shall have the mutual obligation personally to meet and confer promptly upon request by either party and continue for a reasonable period of time in order to exchange freely information, opinions, and proposals, and to endeavor to reach agreement on matters within the scope of representation prior to the adoption by the public agency of its final budget for the ensuing year. The process should include adequate time for the resolution of impasses where specific procedures for such resolution are contained in local rule, regulation, or ordinance, or when such procedures are utilized by mutual consent.
3505.1. If a tentative agreement is reached by the authorized representatives of the public agency and a recognized employee organization or recognized employee organizations, the governing body shall vote to accept or reject the tentative agreement within 30 days of the date it is first considered at a duly noticed public meeting. A decision by the governing body to reject the tentative agreement shall not bar the filing of a charge of unfair practice for failure to meet and confer in good faith. If the governing body adopts the tentative agreement, the parties shall jointly prepare a written memorandum of understanding.
3505.2. If after a reasonable period of time, representatives of the public agency and the recognized employee organization fail to reach agreement, the public agency and the recognized employee organization or recognized employee organizations together may agree upon the appointment of a mediator mutually agreeable to the parties. Costs of mediation shall be divided one-half to the public agency and one-half to the recognized employee organization or recognized employee organizations.
3505.3. (a) Public agencies shall allow a reasonable number of public agency employee representatives of recognized employee organizations reasonable time off without loss of compensation or other benefits when they are participating in any one of the following activities:
(1) Formally meeting and conferring with representatives of the public agency on matters within the scope of representation.
(2) Testifying or appearing as the designated representative of the employee organization in conferences, hearings, or other proceedings before the board, or an agent thereof, in matters relating to a charge filed by the employee organization against the public agency or by the public agency against the employee organization.
(3) Testifying or appearing as the designated representative of the employee organization in matters before a personnel or merit commission.
(b) The employee organization being represented shall provide reasonable notification to the employer requesting a leave of absence without loss of compensation pursuant to subdivision (a).
(c) For the purposes of this section, “designated representative” means an officer of the employee organization or a member serving in proxy of the employee organization.
3505.4. (a) The employee organization may request that the parties’ differences be submitted to a factfinding panel not sooner than 30 days, but not more than 45 days, following the appointment or selection of a mediator pursuant to the parties’ agreement to mediate or a mediation process required by a public agency’s local rules. If the dispute was not submitted to mediation, an employee organization may request that the parties’ differences be submitted to a factfinding panel not later than 30 days following the date that either party provided the other with a written notice of a declaration of impasse. Within five days after receipt of the written request, each party shall select a person to serve as its member of the factfinding panel. The Public Employment Relations Board shall, within five days after the selection of panel members by the parties, select a chairperson of the factfinding panel.
(b) Within five days after the board selects a chairperson of the factfinding panel, the parties may mutually agree upon a person to serve as chairperson in lieu of the person selected by the board.
(c) The panel shall, within 10 days after its appointment, meet with the parties or their representatives, either jointly or separately, and may make inquiries and investigations, hold hearings, and take any other steps it deems appropriate. For the purpose of the hearings, investigations, and inquiries, the panel shall have the power to issue subpoenas requiring the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of evidence. Any state agency, as defined in Section 11000, the California State University, or any political subdivision of the state, including any board of education, shall furnish the panel, upon its request, with all records, papers, and information in their possession relating to any matter under investigation by or in issue before the panel.
(d) In arriving at their findings and recommendations, the factfinders shall consider, weigh, and be guided by all the following criteria:
(1) State and federal laws that are applicable to the employer.
(2) Local rules, regulations, or ordinances.
(3) Stipulations of the parties.
(4) The interests and welfare of the public and the financial ability of the public agency.
(5) Comparison of the wages, hours, and conditions of employment of the employees involved in the factfinding proceeding with the wages, hours, and conditions of employment of other employees performing similar services in comparable public agencies.
(6) The consumer price index for goods and services, commonly known as the cost of living.
(7) The overall compensation presently received by the employees, including direct wage compensation, vacations, holidays, and other excused time, insurance and pensions, medical and hospitalization benefits, the continuity and stability of employment, and all other benefits received.
(8) Any other facts, not confined to those specified in paragraphs (1) to (7), inclusive, which are normally or traditionally taken into consideration in making the findings and recommendations.
(e) The procedural right of an employee organization to request a factfinding panel cannot be expressly or voluntarily waived.
3505.5. (a) If the dispute is not settled within 30 days after the appointment of the factfinding panel, or, upon agreement by both parties within a longer period, the panel shall make findings of fact and recommend terms of settlement, which shall be advisory only. The factfinders shall submit, in writing, any findings of fact and recommended terms of settlement to the parties before they are made available to the public. The public agency shall make these findings and recommendations publicly available within 10 days after their receipt.
(b) The costs for the services of the panel chairperson selected by the board, including per diem fees, if any, and actual and necessary travel and subsistence expenses, shall be equally divided between the parties.
(c) The costs for the services of the panel chairperson agreed upon by the parties shall be equally divided between the parties, and shall include per diem fees, if any, and actual and necessary travel and subsistence expenses. The per diem fees shall not exceed the per diem fees stated on the chairperson’s résumé on file with the board. The chairperson’s bill showing the amount payable by the parties shall accompany his or her final report to the parties and the board. The chairperson may submit interim bills to the parties in the course of the proceedings, and copies of the interim bills shall also be sent to the board. The parties shall make payment directly to the chairperson.
(d) Any other mutually incurred costs shall be borne equally by the public agency and the employee organization. Any separately incurred costs for the panel member selected by each party shall be borne by that party.
(e) A charter city, charter county, or charter city and county with a charter that has a procedure that applies if an impasse has been reached between the public agency and a bargaining unit, and the procedure includes, at a minimum, a process for binding arbitration, is exempt from the requirements of this section and Section 3505.4 with regard to its negotiations with a bargaining unit to which the impasse procedure applies.
3505.7. After any applicable mediation and factfinding procedures have been exhausted, but no earlier than 10 days after the factfinders’ written findings of fact and recommended terms of settlement have been submitted to the parties pursuant to Section 3505.5, a public agency that is not required to proceed to interest arbitration may, after holding a public hearing regarding the impasse, implement its last, best, and final offer, but shall not implement a memorandum of understanding. The unilateral implementation of a public agency’s last, best, and final offer shall not deprive a recognized employee organization of the right each year to meet and confer on matters within the scope of representation, whether or not those matters are included in the unilateral implementation, prior to the adoption by the public agency of its annual budget, or as otherwise required by law.
3505.8. An arbitration agreement contained in a memorandum of understanding entered into under this chapter shall be enforceable in an action brought pursuant to Title 9 (commencing with Section 1280) of Part 3 of the Code of Civil Procedure. An assertion that the arbitration claim is untimely or otherwise barred because the party seeking arbitration has failed to satisfy the procedural prerequisites to arbitration shall not be a basis for refusing to submit the dispute to arbitration. All procedural defenses shall be presented to the arbitrator for resolution. A court shall not refuse to order arbitration because a party to the memorandum of understanding contends that the conduct in question arguably constitutes an unfair practice subject to the jurisdiction of the board. If a party to a memorandum of understanding files an unfair practice charge based on such conduct, the board shall place the charge in abeyance if the dispute is subject to final and binding arbitration pursuant to the memorandum of understanding, and shall
dismiss the charge at the conclusion of the arbitration process unless the charging party demonstrates that the settlement or arbitration award is repugnant to the purposes of this chapter.
3506. Public agencies and employee organizations shall not interfere with, intimidate, restrain, coerce or discriminate against public employees because of their exercise of their rights under Section 3502.
3506.5. A public agency shall not do any of the following:
(a) Impose or threaten to impose reprisals on employees, to discriminate or threaten to discriminate against employees, or otherwise to interfere with, restrain, or coerce employees because of their exercise of rights guaranteed by this chapter.
(b) Deny to employee organizations the rights guaranteed to them by this chapter.
(c) Refuse or fail to meet and negotiate in good faith with a recognized employee organization. For purposes of this subdivision, knowingly providing a recognized employee organization with inaccurate information regarding the financial resources of the public employer, whether or not in response to a request for information, constitutes a refusal or failure to meet and negotiate in good faith.
(d) Dominate or interfere with the formation or administration of any employee organization, contribute financial or other support to any employee organization, or in any way encourage employees to join any organization in preference to another.
(e) Refuse to participate in good faith in an applicable impasse procedure.
3507. (a) A public agency may adopt reasonable rules and regulations after consultation in good faith with representatives of a recognized employee organization or organizations for the administration of employer-employee relations under this chapter.
The rules and regulations may include provisions for all of the following:
(1) Verifying that an organization does in fact represent employees of the public agency.
(2) Verifying the official status of employee organization officers and representatives.
(3) Recognition of employee organizations.
(4) Exclusive recognition of employee organizations formally recognized pursuant to a vote of the employees of the agency or an appropriate unit thereof, subject to the right of an employee to
represent himself or herself as provided in Section 3502.
(5) Additional procedures for the resolution of disputes involving wages, hours and other terms and conditions of employment.
(6) Access of employee organization officers and representatives to work locations.
(7) Use of official bulletin boards and other means of communication by employee organizations.
(8) Furnishing nonconfidential information pertaining to employment relations to employee organizations.
(9) Any other matters that are necessary to carry out the purposes of this chapter.
(b) Exclusive recognition of employee organizations formally recognized as majority representatives pursuant to a vote of the employees may be revoked by a majority vote of the employees only after a period of not less than 12 months following the date of recognition.
(c) No public agency shall unreasonably withhold recognition of employee organizations.
(d) Employees and employee organizations shall be able to challenge a rule or regulation of a public agency as a violation of this chapter. This subdivision shall not be construed to restrict or expand the board’s jurisdiction or authority as set forth in subdivisions (a) to (c), inclusive, of Section 3509.
3507.1. (a) Unit determinations and representation elections shall be determined and processed in accordance with rules adopted by a public agency in accordance with this chapter. In a representation election, a majority of the votes cast by the employees in the appropriate bargaining unit shall be required.
(b) Notwithstanding subdivision (a) and rules adopted by a public agency pursuant to Section 3507, a bargaining unit in effect as of the effective date of this section shall continue in effect unless changed under the rules adopted by a public agency pursuant to Section 3507.
(c) A public agency shall grant exclusive or majority recognition to an employee organization based on a signed petition, authorization cards, or union membership cards showing that a majority of the employees in an appropriate bargaining unit desire the representation, unless another labor organization has previously been lawfully recognized as exclusive or majority representative of all or part of the same unit. Exclusive or majority representation shall be determined by a neutral third party selected by the public agency and the employee organization who shall review the signed petition, authorization cards, or union membership cards to verify the exclusive or majority status of the employee organization. In the event the public agency and the employee organization cannot agree on a neutral third party, the California State Mediation and Conciliation Service shall be the neutral third party and shall verify the exclusive or majority status of the employee organization. In the event that the neutral third party determines, based on a signed petition, authorization cards, or union membership cards, that a second labor organization has the support of at least 30 percent of the employees in the unit in which recognition is sought, the neutral third party shall order an election to establish which labor organization, if any, has majority status.
3507.3. Professional employees shall not be denied the right to be represented separately from nonprofessional employees by a professional employee organization consisting of those professional employees. In the event of a dispute on the appropriateness of a unit of representation for professional employees, upon request of any of the parties, the dispute shall be submitted to the California State Mediation and Conciliation Service for mediation or for recommendation for resolving the dispute.
“Professional employees,” for the purposes of this section, means employees engaged in work requiring specialized knowledge and skills attained through completion of a recognized course of instruction, including, but not limited to, attorneys, physicians, registered nurses, engineers, architects, teachers, and the various types of physical, chemical, and biological scientists.
3507.5. In addition to those rules and regulations a public agency may adopt pursuant to and in the same manner as in Section 3507, any such agency may adopt reasonable rules and regulations providing for designation of the management and confidential employees of the public agency and restricting such employees from representing any employee organization, which represents other employees of the public agency, on matters within the scope of representation. Except as specifically provided otherwise in this chapter, this section does not otherwise limit the right of employees to be members of and to hold office in an employee organization.
3508. (a) The governing body of a public agency may, in accordance with reasonable standards, designate positions or classes of positions which have duties consisting primarily of the enforcement of state laws or local ordinances, and may by resolution or ordinance adopted after a public hearing, limit or prohibit the right of employees in these positions or classes of positions to form, join, or participate in employee organizations where it is in the public interest to do so. However, the governing body may not prohibit the right of its employees who are full-time “peace officers,” as that term is defined in Chapter 4.5 (commencing with Section 830) of Title 3 of Part 2 of the Penal Code, to join or participate in employee organizations which are composed solely of those peace officers, which concern themselves solely and exclusively with the wages, hours, working conditions, welfare programs, and advancement of the academic and vocational training in furtherance of the police profession, and which are not subordinate to any other organization.
(b) (1) This subdivision shall apply only to a county of the seventh class.
(2) For the purposes of this section, no distinction shall be made between a position designated as a peace officer position by Chapter 4.5 (commencing with Section 830) of Title 3 of Part 2 of the Penal Code at the time of the enactment of the 1971 amendments to this section, and a welfare fraud investigator or inspector position designated as a peace officer position by any amendment to that Chapter 4.5 at any time after the enactment of the 1971 amendments to this section.
(3) It is the intent of this subdivision to overrule San Bernardino County Sheriff’s Etc. Assn. v. Board of Supervisors (1992) 7 Cal.App.4th 602, 611, with respect to San Bernardino County designating a welfare fraud investigator or inspector as a peace officer under this section.
(c) (1) This subdivision shall apply only to a county of the seventh class and shall not become operative until it is approved by the county board of supervisors by ordinance or resolution.
(2) For the purposes of this section, no distinction shall be made between a position designated as a peace officer position by Chapter 4.5 (commencing with Section 830) of Title 3 of Part 2 of the Penal Code at the time of the enactment of the 1971 amendments to this section, and a probation corrections officer position designated as a peace officer position by any amendment to that Chapter 4.5 at any time after the enactment of the 1971 amendments to this section.
(3) It is the intent of this subdivision to overrule San Bernardino County Sheriff’s Etc. Assn. v. Board of Supervisors (1992) 7 Cal.App.4th 602, 611, to the extent that it holds that this section prohibits the County of San Bernardino from designating the classifications of Probation Corrections Officers and Supervising Probation Corrections Officers as peace officers. Those officers shall not be designated as peace officers for purposes of this section unless that action is approved by the county board of supervisors by ordinance or resolution.
(4) Upon approval by the Board of Supervisors of San Bernardino County, this subdivision shall apply to petitions filed in May 2001 by Probation Corrections Officers and Supervising Probation Corrections Officers.
(d) The right of employees to form, join and participate in the activities of employee organizations shall not be restricted by a public agency on any grounds other than those set forth in this section.
3508.1. For the purposes of this section, the term “police employee” includes the civilian employees of the police department of any city. Police employee does not include any public safety officer within the meaning of Section 3301.
(a) With respect to any police employee, except as provided in this subdivision and subdivision (d), no punitive action, nor denial of promotion on grounds other than merit, shall be undertaken for any act, omission, or other allegation of misconduct if the investigation of the allegation is not completed within one year of the public agency’s discovery by a person authorized to initiate an investigation of the allegation of an act, omission, or other misconduct. This one-year limitation period shall apply only if the act, omission, or other misconduct occurred on or after January 1,
2002. In the event that the public agency determines that discipline may be taken, it shall complete its investigation and notify the police employee of its proposed disciplinary action within that year, except in any of the following circumstances:
(1) If the act, omission, or other allegation of misconduct is also the subject of a criminal investigation or criminal prosecution, the time during which the criminal investigation or criminal prosecution is pending shall toll the one-year time period.
(2) If the police employee waives the one-year time period in writing, the time period shall be tolled for the period of time specified in the written waiver.
(3) If the investigation is a multijurisdictional investigation that requires a reasonable extension for coordination of the involved agencies.
(4) If the investigation involves more than one employee and requires a reasonable extension.
(5) If the investigation involves an employee who is incapacitated or otherwise unavailable, the time during which the person is incapacitated or unavailable shall toll the one-year period.
(6) If the investigation involves a matter in civil litigation in which the police employee is named as a party defendant, the one-year time period shall be tolled while the civil action is pending.
(7) If the investigation involves a matter in criminal litigation in which the complainant is a criminal defendant, the one-year time period shall be tolled during the period of that defendant’s criminal investigation and prosecution.
(8) If the investigation involves an allegation of workers’ compensation fraud on the part of the police employee.
(b) When a predisciplinary response or grievance procedure is required or utilized, the time for this response or procedure shall not be governed or limited by this chapter.
(c) If, after investigation and predisciplinary response or procedure, the public agency decides to impose discipline, the public agency shall notify the police employee in writing of its decision to impose discipline, including the date that the discipline will be imposed, within 30 days of its decision, except if the police employee is unavailable for discipline.
(d) Notwithstanding the one-year time period specified in subdivision (a), an investigation may be reopened against a police employee if both of the following circumstances exist:
(1) Significant new evidence has been discovered that is likely to affect the outcome of the investigation.
(2) One of the following conditions exists:
(A) The evidence could not reasonably have been discovered in the normal course of investigation without resorting to extraordinary measures by the agency.
(B) The evidence resulted from the police employee’s predisciplinary response or procedure.
3508.5. (a) Nothing in this chapter shall affect the right of a public employee to authorize a dues or service fees deduction from his or her salary or wages pursuant to Section 1157.1, 1157.2, 1157.3, 1157.4, 1157.5, or 1157.7.
(b) A public employer shall deduct the payment of dues or service fees to a recognized employee organization as required by an agency shop arrangement between the recognized employee organization and the public employer.
(c) Agency fee obligations, including, but not limited to, dues or agency fee deductions on behalf of a recognized employee organization, shall continue in effect as long as the employee organization is the recognized bargaining representative, notwithstanding the expiration of any agreement between the public employer and the recognized employee organization.
3509. (a) The powers and duties of the board described in Section 3541.3 shall also apply, as appropriate, to this chapter and shall include the authority as set forth in subdivisions (b) and (c). Included among the appropriate powers of the board are the power to order elections, to conduct any election the board orders, and to adopt rules to apply in areas where a public agency has no rule.
(b) A complaint alleging any violation of this chapter or of any rules and regulations adopted by a public agency pursuant to Section 3507 or 3507.5 shall be processed as an unfair practice charge by the board. The initial determination as to whether the charge of unfair practice is justified and, if so, the appropriate remedy necessary to effectuate the purposes of this chapter, shall be a matter within the exclusive jurisdiction of the board, except that in an action to recover damages due to an unlawful strike, the board shall have no authority to award strike-preparation expenses as damages, and shall have no authority to award damages for costs, expenses, or revenue losses incurred during, or as a consequence of, an unlawful strike. The board shall apply and interpret unfair labor practices consistent with existing judicial interpretations of this chapter.
(c) The board shall enforce and apply rules adopted by a public agency concerning unit determinations, representation, recognition, and elections.
(d) Notwithstanding subdivisions (a) to (c), inclusive, the employee relations commissions established by, and in effect for, the County of Los Angeles and the City of Los Angeles pursuant to Section 3507 shall have the power and responsibility to take actions on recognition, unit determinations, elections, and all unfair practices, and to issue determinations and orders as the employee relations commissions deem necessary, consistent with and pursuant to the policies of this chapter.
(e) Notwithstanding subdivisions (a) to (c), inclusive, consistent with, and pursuant to, the provisions of Sections 3500 and 3505.4, superior courts shall have exclusive jurisdiction over actions involving interest arbitration, as governed by Title 9 (commencing with Section 1280) of Part 3 of the Code of Civil Procedure, when the action involves an employee organization that represents firefighters, as defined in Section 3251.
(f) This section shall not apply to employees designated as management employees under Section 3507.5.
(g) The board shall not find it an unfair practice for an employee organization to violate a rule or regulation adopted by a public agency if that rule or regulation is itself in violation of this chapter. This subdivision shall not be construed to restrict or expand the board’s jurisdiction or authority as set forth in subdivisions (a) to (c), inclusive.
3509.3. Notwithstanding any other law, if a decision by an administrative law judge regarding the recognition or certification of an employee organization is appealed, the decision shall be deemed the final order of the board if the board does not issue a ruling that supersedes the decision on or before 180 days after the appeal is filed.
3509.5. (a) Any charging party, respondent, or intervenor aggrieved by a final decision or order of the board in an unfair practice case, except a decision of the board not to issue a complaint in such a case, and any party to a final decision or order of the board in a unit determination, representation, recognition, or election matter that is not brought as an unfair practice case, may petition for a writ of extraordinary relief from that decision or order. A board order directing an election may not be stayed pending judicial review.
(b) A petition for a writ of extraordinary relief shall be filed in the district court of appeal having jurisdiction over the county where the events giving rise to the decision or order occurred. The petition shall be filed within 30 days from the date of the issuance of the board’s final decision or order, or order denying reconsideration, as applicable. Upon the filing of the petition, the court shall cause notice to be served upon the board and thereafter shall have jurisdiction of the proceeding. The board shall file in the court the record of the proceeding, certified by the board, within 10 days after the clerk’s notice unless that time is extended by the court for good cause shown. The court shall have jurisdiction to grant any temporary relief or restraining order it deems just and proper, and in like manner to make and enter a decree enforcing, modifying, and enforcing as modified, or setting aside in whole or in part the decision or order of the board. The findings of the board with respect to questions of fact, including ultimate facts, if supported by substantial evidence on the record considered as a whole, shall be conclusive. Title 1 (commencing with Section 1067) of Part 3 of the Code of Civil Procedure relating to writs shall, except where specifically superseded by this section, apply to proceedings pursuant to this section.
(c) If the time to petition for extraordinary relief from a board decision or order has expired, the board may seek enforcement of any final decision or order in a district court of appeal or superior court having jurisdiction over the county where the events giving rise to the decision or order occurred. The board shall respond within 10 days to any inquiry from a party to the action as to why the board has not sought court enforcement of the final decision or order. If the response does not indicate that there has been compliance with the board’s final decision or order, the board shall seek enforcement of the final decision or order upon the request of the party. The board shall file in the court the record of the proceeding, certified by the board, and appropriate evidence disclosing the failure to comply with the decision or order. If, after hearing, the court determines that the order was issued pursuant to the procedures established by the board and that the person or entity refuses to comply with the order, the court shall enforce the order by writ of mandamus or other proper process. The court may not review the merits of the order.
3510. (a) The provisions of this chapter shall be interpreted and applied by the board in a manner consistent with and in accordance with judicial interpretations of this chapter.
(b) The enactment of this chapter shall not be construed as making the provisions of Section 923 of the Labor Code applicable to public employees.
3511. The changes made to Sections 3501, 3507.1, and 3509 of the Government Code by legislation enacted during the 1999-2000 Regular Session of the Legislature shall not apply to persons who are peace officers as defined in Section 830.1 of the Penal Code.